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Product Updates

Below, please find an overview of the improvements and new features introduced in SeismoStruct; do familiarise yourself in particular with those introduced in this latest release.

An important bug in the material strengths of the Building Modeller when using the Imperial Units is fixed.

New analysis/modelling capabilities

  1. New Buckling analysis
  2. Ability to perform Eigenvalue analysis at every step in Nonlinear Dynamic and Pushover analysis
  3. New Code-based checks for masonry elements
  4. New Performance Criteria for masonry, infill, link and truss elements

New element types, response curves, section types, material models and Structural Codes

  1. Six new element types: (i) Masonry element, (ii) Rack element, (iii) two bearing and seismic isolation elements – Elastomeric Bearing Element (Bouc Wen) and Friction Pendulum Bearing/System, (iv) Shallow foundation macro-element and (v) Pile head macro-element
  2. New infrmDBPH element type with better stability and automatic calculation of the plastic rotation capacity values according to ASCE 41-17
  3. Eight new response curves to be used with the program’s link elements: (i) Quadrilinear symmetric curve, (ii) Quadrilinear asymmetric curve, (iii) Viscous Damper response curve, (iv) Bouc Wen curve, (v) Elastic-Perfectly plastic Gap curve, (vi) Impact response curve, (vii) Self Centering Brace response curve and (viii) Generic Hysteretic curve characterised by pinching effect
  4. Three new sections: (i) one cruciform steel section and (ii) two sections for (reinforced or unreinforced) masonry
  5. Six new material models: (i) one steel model – Buckling Restrained Brace Steel, (ii) two concrete material models – Engineered Cementitious Composites material and Kent-Scott-Park material model, (iii) two materials for masonry – Trilinear masonry model and Parabolic masonry model and (iv) one general material – Generic Hysteretic model
  6. Support for National Annexes for Eurocodes
  7. Input and use of user-defined spectra

Other Functionalities

  1. XML export & import

New response curves, section types, material models and Structural Codes

1. Four new response curves to be used with the program’s link elements: (i) Modified Ibarra-Medina-Krawinkler model with bilinear hysteretic response, (ii) Modified Ibarra-Medina-Krawinkler model with peak-oriented hysteretic response and (iii) Modified Ibarra-Medina-Krawinkler model with pinched hysteretic response, and (iv) a new general asymmetric curve with high pinching

2. Thirty nine new sections: (i) five RC sections (ii) twenty four steel sections, most of which are compound steel sections, and (iii) ten jacketed RC sections

3. Three new material steel models, Ramberg-Osgood steel model, Giuffre-Menegotto-Pinto steel model and bilinear steel model with isotropic strain hardening

4. Support for American Code for Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings (ASCE 41-13), Italian National Seismic Code (NTC-18) and Turkish Seismic Evaluation Building Code (TBDY).

New features in the Building Modeller facility

1. Ability to create and print tables with all the members and their properties in the Building Modeller; this is ideal for the final checks of the structural configuration

2. New feature giving the opportunity to change simultaneously particular parameters (e.g. reinforcement, materials, FRP wraps, advanced member properties etc.) of several members at once

3. Copy Member Properties feature, which enables the copying and pasting of the properties of a member to another member with a single click. The feature is similar to MS Word’s Format Painter

4. Ability to add a slab by identifying its perimeter with a series of mouse clicks

5. Rotate and move the model features in the Building Modeller

6. Ability to select the Control Node at different locations of the building, when creating the model from the Building Modeller

7. The reinforcement ratio ρ is now shown on the member’s Properties Window of the Building Modeller. If ρ becomes smaller than the limits ρmin & ρmax, as proposed by the selected Standard, the reinforcement ratio is displayed with red, in order to warn the users

New post-processing features

1. Ability to display the plastic hinge locations and the locations of damage in the Deformed Shape Viewer of the Post-Processor

2. Several changes to enable easier convergence, including (i) a new convergence criterion with adaptable norm, and (ii) the display in the Post-Processor of the members or locations, where the convergence problems are caused, a feature that enables the easy identification of the members that lead to the convergence difficulties

General updates

1. Ability to immediately send the model to Seismosoft, in the case of convergence difficulties, so that it is debugged by our team of specialists in nonlinear analysis (for commercial users only)

2. The list with FRP wraps suppliers has been enriched

3. The ‘SPF Creator’ program has been included in the installation. Users can use the program, together with a spreadsheet program like MS Excel, to create hundreds or thousands of SeismoStruct input files very quickly without the need for any programming skill. SPF Creator can be used together with SeismoStruct’s batch program, SeismoBatch, to execute thousands of analyses (e.g. for the derivation of fragility curves) very quickly and effectively.

4. Ability to output the Total Support Forces in SeismoBatch

5. Libraries with predefined material strengths, depending on the year of construction of the building, according to the tables provided by the ASCE 41-13 and KANEPE Standards (available only for these two Standards)

New analysis/modelling capabilities

1. New chord rotation and shear capacity checks according to EC8, the Italian National Seismic Code (NTC-08) and the Greek Seismic Interventions Code (KANEPE). All limit states are now supported.

2. Definition of the code-based parameters (primary/secondary members, knowledge level and confidence factor, safety factors etc) according to the codes

3. Automatic calculation of the target displacement in pushover analysis (conventional and adaptive) according to different codes

4. Ability to check only the core area with the concrete strain performance criterion

5. Ability to save the results in just text output without the binary output

6. New more user-friendly dialog box for loading accelerograms

7. Ability to deactivate warning messages, which is important while running multiple analyses with SeismoBatch

8. Ability to suppress warnings at the beginning of the analysis, which is particularly useful in SeismoBatch

9. Ability to simultaneously run more than one analyses in SeismoBatch

10. The warning messages at the beginning of the analysis are automatically closed after 2 min if there is no input by the user; this is particularly useful in SeismoBatch, since the sequence of analyses does not stop if a warning message is shown

New elements, section types and material models

1. Seven new sections: L & T column sections, jacketed L, T & circular, jacketed asymmetric rectangular section and jacketed T-beam

2. FRP wrapping in column sections, large library with FRP wraps available in the market

3. Ability to display the section’s shear reinforcement

4. Ability to use concrete material models with the rss section

5. Building Modeller:7 new sections (L & T column sections, jacketed L, T & circular, jacketed T-beam and compound walls); Stairs; Inclined slabs; Ability to specify the slab’s type of support, i.e. where the slab loads are distributed; Ability to specify the slab’s reinforcement directions; FRP wrapping of columns

6. Additional mass can be defined for the frame element classes

New post-processing features

1. Display of user-defined damage patterns in the deformed shape of the post-processor, upon reaching of the specified performance criteria

2. Ability to save and load the plot settings in the post-processor plots. In this way, it is very easy to export the format of one graph to the others

3. Ability to show max, min and Abs.max in all the plots of the post-processor

4. Ability to sort nodes and elements in the lists of the post-processor

5. Ability to cut planes in the 3D plots of the post-processor for better visualisation of the results (both deformed shape and action effect diagrams)

General updates and bugs fixes

1. Fixed problem with the User Account Control (UAC) persistent warning message when opening the program

2. Corrected problems with network installations

3. Fixed bugs with the malfunctioning of the selection and editing of stress-points

4. Fixed IDA bug when using performance criteria

5. Fixed problem with wrong bricks orientation in short walls

6. Fixed problem with wrong definition of reinforcement strain performance criterion in files created with the Building Modeller

7. Fixed problem with wrong label in Inertia Forces post-processor plot

8. Fixed problem with malfunctioning performance criteria in steel structures created with the Wizard facility

9. Fixed problem with initialisation of the link elements in IDA

10. Fixed bug with wrong extraction of link rotational deformations in SeismoBatch

New analysis/modelling capabilities

1. Response Spectrum analysis

2. CAD-based Building Modeller (Note: not available in academic version of the program)

3. Batch Analysis Facility

4. Automatic calculation of shear and chord-rotation capacity for frame elements

5. User-defined strength degradation for frame elements that reached their shear capacity

6. Multiple options for transforming masses to loads, and vice-versa

7. Distributed loads for frame elements

New elements, section types and material models

1. Computationally-efficient displacement-based plastic-hinge frame element; ‘infrmDBPH’

2. Strealined definition of reinforced concrete sections (cover concrete no longer needs to be specified by user)

3. Possibility of using different steel material for existing and new rebars in reinforced concrete jacketed sections

4. Longitudinal reinforcement patterns in ‘rcrws’, ‘rclws’, ‘rcuws’ and ‘rcbgs’ section types

5. European rebars library augmented with 24/26 mm diameters

6. Double angle/channel shape section (‘dacss’) and composite rectangular section (‘crs’)

7. Predefined W and HSS steel sections

8. Dodd-Restrepo steel model (‘stl_dr’)

9. Automatic FRP jackets confinement factor computation

10. User-customisation of Modulus of Elasticity for all concrete material models

New pre-processing features

1. Graphical input facility for nodal and element loads

2. Simpler but more informative ‘Add Material Class’ module

3. Font size adjustment in 3D model plot node/element labels

4. Possibility of adding additional node/element to an existing Group

5. Graphical point&click selection of sectional stress/strain monitoring points

6. Infill response curves are now visible only when defining an infill panel element

7. Selection of rebar size typology (European or US) is now independent from Units selection (SI or English)

8. Applied Loads module is now active when Eigenvalue analysis is selected (so that masses can be defined from loads)

9. Wizard-generated models feature ‘infrmFBPH’ frame elements (computationally more efficient than their ‘infrmFB’ counterparts)

New post-processing features

1. Stress and strain output in Incremental Dynamic Analysis

2. Possibility for users to define which performance criteria is visualised in the ‘Deformed Shape Viewer’

3. Graphical 3D/2D visualisation of internal forces for each single element (accessible by clicking an element in the ‘Frame Forces Viewer’ module)

General updates and bugs fixes

1. Updated Help Systems and User Manuals, which now feature a ‘Getting Started’ section with plenty of model creation tutorials (corresponding tutorial videos also released online)

2. The position of the longitudinal rebars in R/C sections now considers the stirrups’ width

3. Corrected problem in IDA when the ratio between the number of analysis steps and output frequency was not an integer

4. Replaced ‘sec(0)-sec(3)’ with ‘sec(1)-sec(4)’ in analysis log file

5. Corrected bug in definition of stress/strain monitoring point

6. Removed numerically unstable material models

7. Addressed other minor bugs

New general features

1. Multi-lingual installation featuring two new languages (Spanish and Turkish)

2. User Manual (in pdf format) and Help System associated to the new languages

Some minor updates and bug fixes

1. Updated both English and Italian Help Systems and User Manuals

2. Increased the limit of 1000 in the ‘Cut Planes’ facility, which was creating some difficulties when using ‘mm’ as lenght unit

3. Corrected a bug in the computation of nodal masses from the distributed mass elements

4. Corrected a bug in the performance criteria visualisation

5. Corrected a bug related to the redraw of the 3D plot after changes in the classes

6. Corrected the numerical inconsistency between the moment values displayed in the ‘Step Output’ module and those seen in the ‘Frame Forces Viewer’ module

7. Fixed a ‘range check error’ in the Post-Processor (‘Performance Criteria Checks’ module)

8. Modified the way in which the elastic properties (EA, EI2, EI3) of the elastic part of the infrmFBPH element are calculated (now based on the initial tangent stiffness of the section calculated from integration)

9. Corrected some messages in the Registration module

10. Corrected a bug regarding the output of the analysis steps that was causing problems especially in the IDA

11. Solved a problem that was leading to different results using different versions of Windows for adaptive pushover models featuring extreme variation of stiffness

12. Corrected a bug related to the end releases of the elfrm element

13. Corrected a bug in the grouping of elements

14. Corrected a number of other minor bugs

New general features

1. Multi-lingual installation (currently English and Italian languages are supported)

2. Improved 3D graphical rendering (e.g. new material textures, element transparency, etc)

3. Possibility of saving custom visualisation settings

4. Introduced multiple undoing and redoing

5. Ability to hide the data entry tables present in the Pre-Processor modules, so as to allow full viewing of 3D model rendering

6. Ability to select which coincident node to visualise

7. Added visualisaton of sections fibre discretisation

8. Introduced a User Manual (in pdf format)

9. Introduced a Verification Report (verification models included)

New pre-processing, modelling/analysis and post-processing features

1. Possibility of assigning multiple sections to each frame element

2. Rigid offsets lengths for frame elements

3. Moment/force end-releases for frame elements

4. Automatic ‘Orientation’ of frame elements (elastic and inelastic) through the definition of a rotation angle (no need for a 3rd node definition anymore)

5. Computation of the Modal Participation Factors and the Effective Modal Masses associated with rotational degrees-of-freedom

6. Frame Forces Viewer for graphical visualisation of frame elements internal forces diagrams

7. Possibility of changing the base node, automatically chosen by the program for the plotting of relative deformed shapes, using the function Fix selected node (in Deformed Shape Settings…)

8. Restored AVI movie creation facility

Some minor updates and bug fixes

1. Updated Help System

2. Improved the ‘Confinement factor calculation’ module

3. Increased the maximum number of nodes and elements that can be defined in a SeismoStruct model; the new upper bound value has been set to 50,000 for both

4. Increased the maximum number of data points in the definition of time-history curves; the new upper bound value has been set to 200,000

5. Corrected a bug in the bl_asm curve

6. Corrected a number of other minor bugs

Some minor updates and bug fixes

1. Updated Help System (including a significantly expanded and now complete list of the new features in v5.2.1 release, below)

2. Allowed the definition of negative values for element activation time/L.F. (in order to cater for cyclic pushover analysis), and changed the default activation from 0 to -1E20 (for the same reason)

3. Set Lanczos eigenvalue algorithm as default (including for adaptive pushover wizard-created models), and corrected visualisation bug in the Eigenvalue settings module when changing from one algorithm to the other

4. Increased default steel fracture/buckling strain from 0.06 to 0.10

5. Corrected minor bugs in ‘rcchs’ section, ‘con_frp’ material model, elastic element orientation display in ‘Add New Element’ dialog box, opening of some old v4 models files, undo/redo buttons

New general features

1. Software licensing facility introduced in the program

2. Automatic checking of a release of a new version

3. Prevent false virus warnings (mainly with Nod32)

4. Avoid incompatibilities with background monitoring software DeepFreeze

5. Uninstall shortcut now available in the Start menu folder (i.e. no need to go to Control Panel to uninstall the software)

New modelling/analysis features

1. Activation and deactivation time/L.F. for all elements (repair elements refrm/relnk no longer required)

2. Automatic computation of confinement factor, for constant confinement concrete models

3. Failure strain (fracture/buckling) introduced in steel models

4. Combined Jacobi+Ritz algorithm, for eigenvalue analysis

5. Improved Force-based Convergence Criteria (it was excessively stringent)

6. Adaptive Response Control introduced (of relevance in particular for 3D models)

7. New response curves (multi-linear and smooth curves)

8. Commercial steel profile sections now available

9. New composite circular section (ccs) and reinforced concrete box-girder section (rcbgs)

10. Possibility of introducing rebars in composite sections

11. Possibility of defining eccentric T-shaped reinforced concrete section (e.g. L-shaped)

12. Stress-recovery is now activated by default on all new models (even if it slows down analysis, so as to ensure correct internal forces output when in presence of distributed element loading)

13. Penalty Functions now used by default, as opposed to Lagrange Multipliers (the latter tend to lead to very slow analyses, especially for large models)

14. Disabled, by default, isotropic hardening in stl_mp material model, by setting parameters a3=0 & a4=1 (to avoid unrealistically large member capacities under large cyclic straining)

New pre-processing features

1. Minimum value of integration sections for infrmFB elements set to 3

2. infrmFB, rather than infrmDB, elements automatically generated in the Wizard facility

3. Adaptive Response Control set as default Loading Phase for Adaptive Pushover in the Wizard-created models

4. Concrete and steel material classes introduced (for easier material model definition)

5. Units Selector moved out of the Project Settings module

6. Possibility of zooming-in on cross-sections module

7. Improved reinforcement patterns in rcrs and rcjrs sections

8. New default values in inf_strut curve

9. Perfomance criteria introduced in Wizard-created models

10. Warning message when trying to use interstorey drift scaling in 3D Adaptive Pushover

11. Default number of steps in Wizard-created pushover models set to 50 (100 was excessive)

12. Moved the Geometric Nonlinearity option to the ‘Analysis’ tab in the Settings

13. Changed concrete models acronyms (which now refer to their authors)

14. Less commonly used material models deactivated by default (they can be activated in the Settings menu, in the Constitutive Models tab)

15. Removed parameters ‘minimum/maximum natural frequency of interest’ and ‘frequency of shift’ from Lanczos settings (these are of essentially no use for standard users)

New post-processing features

1. Output of nodal masses (in the ‘Modal/Masses Quantities’ module)

2. Possibility of visualising absolute displacement values in ‘Deformed Shape’ module

3. Removed avi movie creation facility, due to current incompatibilities with external library

4. Extended Text Output capabilities, including the possibility of outputing different response parameters in separate files and of outputting response quantities for all nodes and elements, independently of what is selected in the Analysis Output module

5. Convergence norms at each analysis step are shown during the analysis

Bug fixes

1. Eliminated possibility of copying&pasting in the Restraints module, to avoid errors with the models

2. In the Wizard facility, prevented the creation of 3D models with one frame only (due to incompatibility with the automatic creation of diaphragm constraints)

3. Corrected bug in the output of internal forces in truss elements (unrealistically large values)

4. infrmDB and infrmFB elements are now behaving as expected when geometric nonlinearity is de-activated

5. Corrected bug in the rendering of elastic elements (appeared rotated about their own axis)

6. Corrected bug in link element with asymmetric response curves (applying a force in the positive direction, was activating the stiffness in the negative one)

7. Corrected bug in computation of self-weight of elastic elements

8. Corrected minor bugs in stl_mn and stl_mp material models (mainly related to spurious results in short cycle reversals)

9. User-friendly message is now shown when input time-history file exceeds 64000 lines

10. Corrected GUI error when a user, by mistake, repeats a node when defining an infill panel element

Bug fixes

1. Too large a section visualised in the rendering of circular sections (rccs and rcchs)

2. Wrong (very large) values in IDA envelopes

3. Wrong (asymmetric) response of symmetric ‘gap_hook’ elements

4. Wrong computation of U-sections baricentre

5. ‘Out of Memory’ or ‘Range Check’ errors when using ‘infrmFB’ elements in very large models

Bug fixes

1. Access violation error when using ‘Richard-Abbott’ response curve

2. Restraint nodes multiple listing

Bug fixes

1. ‘elastic element’ swapped local axes definition

2. Access violation error when using ‘stl_mn’ model

3. Rebars positioning checks in ‘rcrhs’ section

New modelling/analysis features

1. New nonlinear geometric transformation

2. Force-based frame element (infrmFB)

3. Plastic-hinge force-based element (infrmFBPH)

4. Skyline solver

5. Constraints (incl. rigid links and rigid diaphragms)

6. User-defined section facility for elastic elements

New pre-processing features

1. On-the-fly plotting of user-calibrated material constitutive relationships

2. On-the-fly drawing of user-dimensioned cross-sections

3. Reinforcement patterns definition facility for reinforced concrete sections

4. Graphical input/generation facility (point & click) for nodes, elements and constraints

5. ‘Cut planes’ visualisation

6. Shrink/expand visualisation for frame elements

7. Coloured visualisation of groups

8. Coloured visualisation of performance criteria

9. Better quality of movies created in the post-processor

Bug fixes

1. Corrected force-based convergence criterion (was exaggeratedly stringent)

New features

1. 3D Adaptive Pushover

2. Nonlinear infill panel model

3. Inelastic truss element

4. Soil-structure interaction response curve

5. Modified Richard-Abott response curve (for modelling of steel/composite beam-column joints)

6. Gap-hook response curve, Bilinear kinematic response curve

7. Self-weight modelling facility

8. Global and local initial/tangent stiffness-proportional damping

9. FRP trilinear material model

10. FRP-confined concrete model

11. Reinforced concrete asymetric rectangular section

12. Composite I-section

13. 3D model rendering facility

14. Element local axes visualisation

15. English units system

16. Text file output facility

17. Significantly revised and updated Help System

Bug fixes

1. Important bug fix in time-history integration algorithm

2. Fixed local axes orientation

3. Minor bug fixes in the Graphical User Interface.

Bug fixes

1. Important bug fix in the ‘Newmark integration algorithm’

2. Minor bug fixes in the Graphical User Interface

New features

1. Force-based Adaptive Pushover (FAP) and Displacement-based Adaptive Pushover (DAP) now available for static nonlinear analysis of 2D structures

2. New material model for superelastic shape-memory alloys

3. Takeda, Ramberg-Osgood, Richard-Abbott and Nonlinear Elastic response curves introduced

4. New ‘Loads to Masses’ capability introduced

5. Update of Help System

Bug fixes

1. Minor bug fixes in ‘Time-history Curves’, ‘Analysis Output’, ‘Running Analysis’, ‘Modal Quantities’ and ‘Settings’ modules

New features

1. Maximum Number of elements/nodes increased

2. Output of frame and link element deformation response quantities

3. New Performance criteria types (shear force and chord rotations)

4. Increased flexibility in Performance Criteria module

5. New bilinear response curves for link elements (bl_sym and bl_asm)

6. Extended output facilities for IDA analysis type

7. Multiple selection and editing capabilities for nodes, elements and loads

8. Extension of Rayleigh damping to elastic frame elements

9. Automatic subdivision into 4, 5 & 6 elements

10. Change of default System of Units to (m, KN)

11. Update of Help System

Bug fixes

1. Major bug fix in local axes definition of elastic frame elements (elfrm)

2. Major bug fix in the definition of re-bar location in reinforced concrete T-sections (rcts)

3. Minor bug fixes in Wizard, Sections and Performance Criteria modules

New features

1. New linear asymmetric curve for the link elements (lin_asm)

2. New visualisation of the link elements

3. Minor changes in the Help system

Bug fixes

1. Significant bug fix in the calculation of the axial rigidity of the elastic frame element (elfrm)

2. Minor bug fixes in the Graphical User Interface

New features

1. Updated Help System

2. Number of allowed point loads increased to 2000

3. New images to describe behaviour curves in the program

Bug fixes

1. Major bug in the Units Selector feature

2. Minor bugs in Eigenvalue output, Loading Phases, Adaptive Parameters and Performance Criteria modules

New features

1. SeismoStruct Help System

2. High-strength concrete material model

3. Elastic frame element

4. Performance criteria module

5. Units selector facility

6. Stresses and strains output at selected locations on the sections of the frame elements. And other…

Bug fixes

1. Minor bug fixes on the pre-processor and the post-processor

Bug fixes

1. Fixing some minor bugs in the Incremental Dynamic Analysis module

Bug fixes

1. Fixing some backward compatibility problems of SeismoStruct v1.2

New features

1. New module for Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA)

2. New optimised convergence checking procedure

3. New installation features

4. Improved behaviour and additional features of groups

5. Capability to transform masses to gravity forces

6. Many smaller features

Bug fixes

1. Fixed bug in the stl3 material model

2. Fixed bug in the axis definitions of the link element class

3. Corrected problem with the Data Entry Table

4. Other minor bug fixes

New features

1. New rectangular hollow section

2. Ability to specify bar numbers and diameters, instead of reinforcement area, in the definition of RC sections

3. Option to enable/disable automatic plot refresh

4. Option to change and keep default deformation multipliers and other…

Bug fixes

1. Solved installation problem (‘set data for..’)

2. Corrected group functionality in the post-processor

3. Corrected bug when specifying records for asynchronous ground motion

4. Solved error in the derivation of the hysteretic curves

5. Solved error in copying eigenvalue and step output results

6. Corrected local axis description in RC sections…

SeismoStruct has been programmed from scratch, and in its entirety, at Seismosoft, using the Delphi Pascal Integrated Development Environment. The first stable version was released in September 2002, after a total period of approximately 8 months of development.

SeismoStruct comprises three main components; Pre-processor, Processor and Post-Processor. The graphical layout of all these three constituents was envisaged such as to favour a tab-window organisation, as opposed to menu-based functionality, common in other packages.

The inspiration behind the structure of the Pre-processor stems from the text-based data entry system of ADAPTIC, a Finite Element program developed at Imperial College by Izzuddin [1991].

Finally, a number of features present in SeismoStruct (e.g. material models, integration algorithms, etc.) are based on the work of other researchers, as published in scientific journals and/or technical reports. A listing of the most significant of such publications may be found in SeismoStruct’s Help system.